Chapter 12



The Leaky Family


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Louis S.B. Leakey

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Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey was born on August 7, 1903 in Kabete Mission, Kenya. His parents were Harry and Mary Leakey. Louis spoke both English and Kikuyu. He found his first fossil when he was thirteen. In effect, he went on to Cambridge University to study anthropology and archeology and graduated in 1926. In 1928, Louis married Frida Avern with whom he had two children. Yet during an expedition to Eastern Africa, Louis had an affair with Mary Nicol. Frida filed for a divorce and shortly after, Louis married Mary. The scandals and rumors ruined Louis' reputation at Cambridge. He moved back to Kenya in 1937.

Louis Leakey made a huge impact upon the world of anthropology and archeology. Early on in his career, Louis announced his agreement with Darwin's theory that all human life began in Africa. He found many fossils which supported Darwin's theory. The remains of a Zinjanthropus boisei were found in 1959 surrounded with many tools and other instruments. This specimen dated back to over 1.75 million years ago.
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The next important finding was discovered 5 years later in Olduvai Gorge. The new species was called Homo habilis. At first, the connection between man and this specimen was debated. But later on, the specimen was accepted as a human relative.
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During these years of discovery, Louis' marriage suffered greatly. Mary and Louis stayed together because of their children. Louis wrote 20 books and over 150 articles about anthropology and archeology in his lifetime. Louis died in London 1972. He suffered a heart attack in his car on the way to a speech. In all, Louis greatly effected the world and our current understanding of man.
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Mary D. Leakey

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Mary Douglas Leakey (maiden name Nicol) was born on February 6, 1913 in London, England. Her parents were Erskine and Cecilia. Erskine was Scottish and Celicia came from East Anglia. Erskine was a landscape artist. Mary inherited the artistic gene and spent much of time as a child painting the many places she would travel to with her father. Mary's fascination in archeology was realized in Dordogne when she met excavator Abbe Lemozi. When her father died in 1926, Mary was sent to a Catholic convent. She was expelled numerous times. She graduated from the University of London with a degree in archeology and geology.

Mary had an affair with Louis Leakey and, after the divorce of Louis' wife, married him. Together, they had three sons: Jonathan, Richard and Phillip. It did not take long for Mary to discover that Louis was a womanizer and a workaholic. They did not divorce mainly because of their sons.

Mary's first notable find was the Proconsul africanus.
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She was a supportive figure throughout her husband's life and usually played a key role in his findings. Her independent career began after her husband's death. It was at Taetoli that Mary found an Australopithecus afarensis skull and footprints. This extinct cousin of the Homo sapien was one of the first species to walk on two feet. The skull dated back to 3.3 million years ago.
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Mary died in 1996 in Nairobi, Kenya. She left a clear footprint in the archeological timeline.

Richard E.F. Leakey

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Richard Erskine Frere Leakey was born on December 19, 1944 in Nairobi, Kenya. He was the second son of the anthropologist couple Louis and Mary Leakey. He made his first archeology find in 1950, where he discovered the remains of a giant, extinct pig. During childhood and adolescence, Richard experiences some dilemmas. He rebelliously proclaimed that he would never be interested in archaelogy, anthropology or paleontology. He dropped out of high school two years early and started a safari business and taught himself to fly. In 1965, he decided that he would more successful if he continued in school. Repentantly, he returned to high school and graduated. He married Margaret Cropper, an archaeologist. She gave him one daughter, Anna. After their divorce, Richard married Meave Epps, a zoologist. She gave him two daughters, Louise and Samira.

Richard's first significant find was discovered in 1975 where he found a skull of a female Homo erectus which dated back to 1.6 million years ago. He found another Homo erectus on a separate expedition in 1984 called the"Turkana Boy."
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Roger Lewing and Richard unearthed the most complete specimen of a Homo erectus yet. As well, in 1985, Richard discovered a new species, the Australopithecus aethiopicus, also called the Paranthropus aethiopicus.

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Though it is unknown by many, Richard is a conservationist as well. He was the head of the Kenyan Wildlife Service from 1989 to 1998. He had been a strong advocate for anti-elephant poaching. As-a-matter-of-fact, he organized the burning of 12 tons of ivory in 1989.

In his lifetime, Richard has endured terminal kidney disease and the lose of his two legs in a plane crash. He is now a fellow at the State University of New York.

Meave E. Leakey

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Meave Epps Leakey was born in 1942 in London. Throughout her life, Meave was educated in convents and boarding schools. She graduated from the University of North Wales in 1968 with a PhD She became a zoologist thereafter. She married Richard Leakey in 1970 and gave birth to two daughters, Louise and Samira.

Meave is best known for her finding of the previously undiscovered Kenyanthropus platyops. The Kenyanthropus platyops, also known as the "Flat-Faced Man of Kenya," dates back 3.5 million years ago. It is believed to be older than the famous Australopithecus afarensis specimen "Lucy" found in Mexico.

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Meave is currently leading the Koobi Fora Research Project.

Louise Leakey

Louise Leakey was born in Kenya in 1972. She was the daughter of Richard and Meave Leakey. She was less than one month old when she saw her first archaeological site. She attended the University of Bristol and received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Geology and Biology. Upon receiving this accolade, Louise received a PhD in Paleontology at the University of London. She is married and has a daughter.

Louise was present 0at the finding of the "Flat-Faced Man of Kenya" and is currently co-leading the Koobi Fora Research Project.

The Leakey Foundation




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Three Dog Night


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Three Dog Night is a band that has known great success. Cory Wells and Danny began the band. The band consists of six talented and creative musicians: Cory and Danny on lead vocals, Jimmy Greenspoon on keyboards, Michael Allsup on guitar, Paul Kingery on bass and vocals and finally Pat Bautz on drums. This group has been playing and creating hits since 1969, with successful hits such as "Joy to the World" and "One." This being their 4th decade of legendary music making, they’re still going strong with a new album expected out sometime in 2007.

Three Dog Night didn’t always create the lyrics to their songs.
Hoyt Axton wrote the band’s big success "Joy to the World," Randy Newman created "Mama Told Me (Not to Come)," Harry Nilsson produced "One." Three Dog Night had experienced much success with 21 hit singles and two gold albums.

In the first 6 years of their career, they had sold around 50 million records. They had a total of 7 number one hits, over 7 million selling singles. This band had an element that no other band had: three individual vocalists. Together, Three Dog Night will leave a legacy.

Here is a video clip to their hit song "One:"


Here is another popular song called "Joy to the World:"


Three Dog Night



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The Hudson's Bay Company


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The Hudson’s Bay Company is the oldest Canadian commercial company. It is also one of the world’s oldest corporations. The company began in the 17th century when Canadian fur trade was a major part of England and France’s economy. Two French men, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, had received information that the best fur came from the Hudson Bay area. They asked France for financial help to set up a trading post but they couldn’t get the proper funding. Alternatively, they turned to some businessmen in Boston Massachusetts for some support. The businessmen agreed to help and brought the two coureurs-de-bois to England to set up a financial agreement. After a period of time, the trading post.

The year of 1880 marked the rise of retail. The company began to move west and in 1881, the first catalogue was created. In 1907, the company decided to expand and begin the Wholesale Department, where the company started selling liquor, tobacco, coffee, tea, confectionery and blankets. In 1913, HBC decided to build modern downtown department stores. At the end of the retail rise, HBC decided to participate in the war efforts, sending out almost 300 vessels complete with food, fuel, lumber and munitions for France.

HBC has been consistently involved in the community. In numerous ways, HBC has raised funds for many charitable causes. HBC created a charitable foundation in 2004 with a goal of improving education and taking care of families in need. As an example of how much the Foundation helps, it has raised in the past 16$ million for the Canadian Cancer Society and around 25$ million for patients with cystic fibrosis. HBC is a valuable corporate citizen, which does its share of giving.
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Hudson's Bay Company

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  • ==H.R.Pufnstuf==
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H.R. Pufnstuf was fabulously loved children’s TV show. The story centered around an impish teenager, hiply dressed, with an every-so-cute British accent named Jimmy and his fantastical, magical talking flute, Freddy. Together, Jimmy and Freddy did their best to get home and escape Witchiepoo, the evil witch. Witchiepoo was after Freddie and did her best to catch him but H.R. Pufnstuf was always there to save the day. H.R. Pufnstuf was the lolly-talking mayor clown-dragon from Living Island. The Krofft brothers created the famous TV show in 1969. For unknown reasons, the show stopped airing new episodes after creating only seventeen. Jack Wild played Jimmy, Billy Hayes was Witchiepoo and Lennie Weinrib played the famous H.R. Pufnstuf.

The 60’s and 70’s was the hippie era where drugs were freely used and abused. H.R. had been interpreted by many to signify “Hand Rolled.” They were many allusions to marijuana: Freddy was once turned into a magic mushroom; Pufnstuf was the “mayor” short for “marijuana” at the time; Pufnstuf was a green dragon with red hair similar to the marijuana plant in its young stages.

In all, this show was memorably brilliant and creative.

Here are the lyrics to the theme song:
H.R. Pufnstuf who's your friend when things get rough
H.R. Pufnstuf can't do a little because you can't do enough
Once upon a summertime just a dream from yesterday
A boy and his magic golden flute heard a boat from off the bay,
Come and play with me Jimmy
Come and play with me
And I will take you on a trip far across the sea
But the boat belonged to a kooky old Witch
Who had in mind the flute to snitch
From her Vroom Broom in the sky
She watched her plans materialize
She waved her wand -- the beautiful boat was gone
The skies grew dark, the sea grew rough
And the boat sailed on and on and on and on and on and on
But Pufnstuf was watching too and knew exactly what to do
He saw the Witch's boat attack and as the boy was fighting back
He called his Rescue Racer Crew as often they'd rehearsed
And off to save the boy they flew
But who would get there first?
But now the boy had washed ashore Puff arrived to save the day
Which made the Witch so mad and sore she shook her fist and screamed away
H.R. Pufnstuf who's your friend when things get rough
H.R. Pufnstuf can't do a little because you can't do enough
H.R. Pufnstuf he's your friend when things get rough
H.R. Pufnstuf can't do a little because you can't do enough

Here is a video of the opening scene:


H.R. Pufnstuf

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Rocket Robin Hood


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Production

Rocket Robin Hood was a popular cartoon show which aired from 1966 to 1969. It was very popular in Canada because it was produced there. It was produced by Krantz Films, Inc located in Toronto, Canada. This company also produced the show Spider-Man which was aired from 1967 to 1970.

Characters and Storyline

It is 3000 A.D. Rocket Robin Hood's crew lives on Sherwood Asteroid. As in the story of Robin Hood, Rocket Robin Hood robs from the rich and gives to the poor with the help of his Merry Spacemen.
The main character of the show was Rocket Robin Hood, a descendant of the original Robin Hood. He is daring, just and kind.
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His band of Merry Spacemen consists of Little John. Friar Tuck, Will Scarlett and Maid Marian.
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The main enemies of Rocket Robin Hood are Prince John and the Sheriff of N.O.T.T. (National Outer-space Terrestrial Territories).
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The lyrics of the theme song were:
Come gather around me. Space travelers surround me.
Hark now to the ballad of Rocket Robin Hood.

I may well confound you, astound you, spellbound you.
With heroes and villains, the bad and the good.
Watch now as our rocket race here from afar.
For now, with our Robin, we live on a star.
Three. Two. One. Blast off!
Band of brothers, marching together.
Heads held high in all kinds of weather.
With fiery blasts, our roaring rockets rise,
Beyond the Earth, beyond the skies.
At the site of Robin, take your stand,
With the gallant leader of the band.
Send a joyous shout throughout the land!
For Rocket Robin Hood!


Rocket Robin Hood

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The Death of John F. Kennedy


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November 22, 1963, marked the day of the 4th presidential assassination. The thirty-fifth president of the United States was murdered by numerous gunshots. John F. Kennedy had been in a presidential motorcade with his wife Jacqueline Kennedy when the tragedy occurred. The exact time and place was 12:30, at the Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas. JFK had been in town for minor political reasons but he was essentially there to insure votes for a re-election since in the previous election, Dallas and most of Texas had voted for the opposing party. The sudden assassination caused much havoc throughout the United States and to this day; people are wondering what really happened.

Four thorough government investigations led everyone to believe that an American citizen named Lee Harvey Oswald was the shooter. As some background research shows, Lee didn’t have a very stable childhood, nor did was he known for being a good boy. The words temperamental and withdrawn were used to describe the man as a child. Born in Louisiana, by the time Lee had reached the age of 18, he had lived in 22 different residences, as his single mother who also took care of Lee’s brother and half-brother, brought him up. Lee had enlisted in the US Marines without ever even receiving his high school diploma. When the police arrested Lee, he vehemently defended himself denying the accusations of having killed the US president. Two days later, Jack Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald to death on live television. He was arrested shortly thereafter. Ruby had stated his intentions to the media but later on altered them. People still have heated debates on why Jack Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald.

People around the world were literally shocked and upset by what had occurred. Seeing as this tragedy happened during the Cold War, at the beginning, no one was certain that the assassination wasn’t part of a bigger attack on the United States. People were also worried about Lyndon B. Johnson, the vice-president, since he was riding only two cars behind the president. The calamity caused many outbreaks; some were quick to get mad at Texas and the Texans, others were busy praying or quietly watching the news coverage on the television. All over the US and Canada, schools were let out early. This sad and unfortunate murder has stayed imprinted in some Americans’ minds as such tragedies aren’t easily forgotten.

The Assassination of JFK



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The War in Vietnam


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General Overview


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The War in Vietnam (also referred to as the Second Indo-china War or the Vietnam conflict) was a war between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (VC) against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN). The conflict arose when the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (who were promoting a communistic made of living) received opposition from the Republic of Vietnam in 1960. It resulted in a huge conflict which lasted 15 years and involved the United States (allied with the RVN), the Republic of Korea (allied with the RVN), Thailand (allied with the RVN), the Philippines (allied with the RVN), Australia (allied with the RVN), New Zealand (allied with the RVN), the People's Republic of China (allied with the DRV and the VC) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (allied with the DRV and the VC). It was a conflict of political control where two political parties clashed and resulted in a country-wide war that killed 3.5 million in total. Vietnam is still scarred with the memory of the many massacres of innocent civilians.

Trang Bang

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This photo was taken by Nick Ut who in June, 1972. This photo won the Pulitzer Prize in 1972. The screaming, naked girl in the photo is named Phan Thi Kim Phuc. She is screaming because her skin is being burnt off by the napalm chemical. Napalm is a kind of jellied gasoline which is used in bombs and flame-throwers. It was developed during World War II by a team of Harvard chemists. Kim received second degree burns on all parts of her body. This happened when Vietnamese fighters started to bomb a neighboring village. When they saw the U.S. soldiers found in this photo, they attacked by pouring the napalm.

This photo became the icon of peace and has been proclaimed by Deyan Sudjic as one of the most horrible portraits of war taken since Goya's time.

Phan Thi Kim Phuc is still alive today and is now a Canadian citizen. She is the Goodwill Ambassador to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
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The War of Vietnam


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Born Free


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The Movie and Book

Born Free (based on the personal account Born Free: a lioness of two worlds by Joy Adamson) tells the story of Elsa, a lioness orphaned at a young age. George Adamson (Bill Travers) killed her parents out of self-defense only to discover that he has just orphaned three lion cubs, including Elsa. Joy Adamson (Virginia McKenna) and George Adamson decide to domesticate the cubs and then give them to the zoo. They give all of the cubs except one: Elsa. The Adamsons decide to keep Elsa and then to release her into the wild when she is grown. With the help of Kendall (Geoffrey Keen), they are able to train Elsa how to be a wild animal and successfully release her into the Kenya Plains. The movie was released in 1666 by Hollywood.

Joy Adamson

Joy Adamson was a naturalist and writer. She lived in Kenya with her husband, George. She was born January 20, 1910. She was Czech. She spent her life painting and writing about the wild animals of Kenya (particularly the big cats). She was murdered on January 3, 1980 by Paul Wakwaro Ekai. Her body was found in the remote plains of Kenya by her assistant Peter Morson. Her husband was killed by poachers in 1989.

The Song

The song Born Free played in the movie won two Academy Awards.
Here is the song played in the movie:

The song was also transformed into a song with lyrics Andy Williams wrote the lyrics and shortened the song. It became very popular in the 70s.
Here is the song Born Free sang and written by Andy Williams:


Born Free

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Rocket Richard


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Maurice Richard, otherwise known as "The Rocket," was one of the world’s greatest hockey players. It was on December 28, 1944, when Maurice, 23, scored five goals and three assists that lead the Habs to victory against the Detroit Red Wings, 9-1, that Maurice was truly noticed by hockey fans worldwide. This marked the beginning of a glorious 18-year career.

Maurice Richard created and broke many records in his time. He was the first to score 500 goals in a career and to score 50 goals in 50 games. The Rocket also belonged 8 Stanley Cup teams and was elected captain 5 times. As the years went by, his successes became more and more impressive. In total, Maurice scored 544 goals and 421 assists, totaling in 965 points in 978 games! Maurice Richard never gave up. Because of this determination and willingness, he scored the winning goal in the 1952 Stanley Cup semi-finals, even though earlier on in the game he had received a blow to the head.

After a long and arduous battle against cancer, Maurice Richard passed away May 27, 2000, at the age of 78. Maurice had been battling abdominal cancer for three years and seemed to have been affected by Parkinson’s as well. As the years went by, it became harder and harder for the legend to fight off the diseases. It had been suspected that he might have also started suffering from Alzheimer’s. Maurice was admitted to a hospital a week before his death and the night before he passed away, he fell into a deep coma. The doctors weren’t sure if he was ever going to wake up. Sadly, the Rocket never did. All hockey fans and players will sorely miss him.

Here is a video about Rocket Richard:
http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=14263]]

Rocket Richard

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Written on: November 20, 2006
Written by: glaurin and ihagenkeith